I have had my Macbook pro for several months now, however I never was able to sync my files with the one drive client, a few months ago we created a ticket with Microsoft, and they said it was not possible because it was not compatible with MacOS Sierra.
The error was that when selecting a folder to sync the files, it said the drive was external or case sensitive format.
2 weeks ago I created the ticket again, because I started to use one drive for business on my windows pc quite a lot, and I needed those files on my mac book pro as well.
2 weeks later Microsoft had to escalate the ticket to an escalation engineer, he had no idea either.
After 15 minutes googling it, I didnt find an exact solution, but a post from someone lead me to the right direction.
Go to Disk Utilies, create a partion (non case sensitive), and use that partition as your One drive location, and voila! it works.!
Thank you Microsoft for making me solve my own ticket!